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Medicine Today
08.05.2018
8 May - International Thalassemia Day

On May 8, International Thalassemia Day is celebrated all over the world.

Hereditary blood disease - thalassemia, which is transmitted to children from parents through the gene, is characterized by a violation of hemoglobin synthesis and chronic anemia as a result of a genetic defect.

Thalassemia, in the production of hemoglobin, creates a protein deficiency in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body and gives a blood-red color.

Hemoglobin in adults arises from a combination of four elements. These elements are called the "protein chain". There are two types of protein chains. The first of them is called, "β chain", and the other "α chain".

A Hemoglobin molecule, as a rule, is created from 2 α and 2 β chains. In people suffering from thalassemia, one of the chains of hemoglobin does not happen. As a result, cells in the red blood cells function incorrectly. There are two types of thalassemia: Major and Minor. During this disease, the color of the blood is reduced.

In the case of early manifestation of thalassemia, the physical and mental development of the child slows down, a rough change in the skeleton of the face occurs. There are such changes as a square skull, a saddle-shaped nose, a tooth shift, an incorrect jaw position, and others. These children have jaundice, often become infected with infectious diseases.

In severe forms of thalassemia, children lose their lives in the first year. In moderately severe forms, children can live to adolescence. In the weak form of thalassemia, the color indicator of the blood decreases, but the organs are not damaged and the spleen is slightly enlarged.

If taking iron medicine in iron deficiency anemia improves blood composition, then during thalassemia, the taking of such drugs has a harmful effect on the patient.

Thalassemia is incurable. The condition of a sick child can be alleviated only with the transfer of blood. Bone marrow transplantation is another type of thalassemia treatment.

In blood related marriages a severe form of thalassemia is common.

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