Interviews with our Doctors

In recent years, the number of people, suffering from diseases of the mammary glands in the world, has been steadily increasing. Women, who are confronted with this problem, are diagnosed with mastopathy or they can remove a breast tumor using a surgical method. What is mastopathy? In general, what is the cause of this disease and rapid growth in recent years? We talked on these topics with the doctor of the Educational-therapeutic Clinic of AMU, radiologist-mammologist Gunel Gambarova.


- Gunel khanum, what is mastopathy and why is it so common? What is the difference between cyst, hardening and node?

- Mastopathy is not a disease, but a reaction of the mammary gland to the hormonal process in the body. The European Society of Radiology 2017 banned to radiographically diagnose mastopathy. If a cyst and other tumors occur in the mammary gland after each menstrual cycle, their size changes or increases until the next menstrual cycle, then this process will not be considered a disease. Treatment-based phytotherapy is needed to relieve pain and mastalgia.


- But women are worried about malignancy.” How can it be determined if it is safe?

- Of course. The following cysts are more dangerous: giant cysts or inflammatory cysts, cysts with some unknown conglomerate inside and hidden cancer. Detailed examination and histological verification in such cases may lead to surgery, puncture, etc.

The problem I want to emphasize concerns adenosis, which is concentrated under the name of mastopathy. In adenosis of large diameter, more hormonal analyzes are performed, and treatment is carried out in accordance with changes in these hormones. However, local, that is, adenosis, located in a limited diameter of the mammary gland, is precisely examined by breast cancer specialists and oncologists. Since the probability of breast cancer in local adenosis is 5-9 times higher. Therefore, when detecting local adenosis during ultrasound and mammography, oncological examination is important. In case of doubt, an operation must be performed.


- Any woman experiencing any breast problem should visit a gynecologist, breast doctor or oncologist?

- A woman, experiencing any breast problems, of course, can refer to a gynecologist. After all, the mammary gland is a gynecological organ. However, if there is a suspicion, women should contact their mammologists and oncologists.

We advise our ladies to listen only to their doctors and not to postpone the examination, not to believe the news on the Internet, which are not based on scientific data, or inaccurate. Every 6 months it is necessary to do an ultrasound, once a year to go to an appointment with a mammologist and oncologist.


- How is it determined whether the tumor found in the breast is benign or malignant?

- Of course, first of all, palpation diagnosis and visual examination of the doctor are important in determining the tumor in the mammary glands. At this point, all the symptoms known to the doctor, ranging from skin color, Krause s symptom, Payr s syndrome, to ambition, etc., are investigated. Then X-ray examinations are performed, which are ultrasound and mammography. However, the final diagnosis of the tumor is made by histological verification.


- How is breast cancer treated? Is it necessary to maintain a certain diet at this time?

- It depends on cytology, histological verification, the degree, size, the relationship between adjacent and surrounding lymph nodes, the patient s age, history, and other tumor conditions. All these and other points are examined only by an oncologist, patients are registered and treatment tactics are selected.

Patients know only one term - cancer! However, the "names" of cancer for doctors are different.

By the way, I would also like to note that a woman diagnosed with breast cancer should not expect a repetition of the same treatment as that of her neighbor and relative. Each woman is individual and each mammary gland and the type of her tumors are different. Please listen only to your doctors.


- From what age and with what regularity does a healthy woman need to undergo breast examination?

- Every woman over the age of 20 should check her breasts in front of a mirror every month. Even if there are no complaints, an ultrasound scan should be performed every 6 months, and after the age of 35 years old, a mammography study of the gold standard should be used for preventive purposes. These examinations are carried out for preventive purposes. In case of a suspicious condition, and if a diagnostic examination is required, it is necessary to undergo an ultrasound every 3 months and a mammography every 3-6 months. If the ultrasound response is not accurate, then a mammogram is performed at a later age.

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