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Department of Pathological Anatomy

In 1919, when the Baku State University and its Medical Faculty were established, many well-known specialists from Russia were invited to work in the university. Among them there was well-known pathologist-anatomist Professor Ivan Ivanovich Shirokogorov. Professor I.I.Shirokogorov (1869-1946) became the Dean of Medical Faculty of the university, lectured on pathological anatomy and conducted seminars from 1919 to 1929. In 1920 the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the Medical Faculty was established and I.I.Shirokogorov was appointed to head the department. During the first 4-5 years, the Associate Professor P.F.Zdrodovski also taught bacteriology and epidemiology (microbiology) in the department. During the first 10 years, in the Department of Pathological Anatomy also worked G.G.Zeman, A.I.Shirokogorova, B.P.Ugryumov, B.S.Leytman, F.I.Bauts, I.S.Ginzburg, J.Y.Huseynov, N.M.Kolesnikov, S.V.Gahramanov. In these years teaching in the department was conducted in Russian only.

In 1930, the Medical Faculty was attached to the People’s Commissariat Public Health of Azerbaijan SSR and Azerbaijan Medical Institute was established on its base. As in the past, the Department of Pathological Anatomy was again headed by Professor I.I.Shirokogorov (then this position was called as “Director of Pathological-Anatomical Institute”). From 1930 to 1940, G.A.Salimkhanov, S.D.Abbasova, H.K.Hasanov, M.Mukhtarov and V.S.Karagedova joined the staff of the department. Besides being the first head of the department, Professor I.I.Shirokogorov also established the theoretical pathology and became the founder of practical pathological service in Azerbaijan. Pathological examinations have already begun in large hospitals in Baku during these periods. Professor I.I.Shirokogorov founded the “Scientific Society of Azerbaijani Pathologists” for the first time in 1924 and he was the first Chairman of this society. The society began to work actively from the beginning. It is no coincidence that the II Congress of the "All-Union Scientific Society of Pathologists" was held at the international level in Baku in 1930. Professor I.I.Shirokogorov, who had great influence in the health care system of Azerbaijan and was a prominent scientist, pedagogical and practical worker, was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1936, was elected an academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1944 and an academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1945. After the death of I.I.Shirokogorov in 1946, his talented student and assistant J.Y.Huseynov became head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy.

Professor Jalil Yusif oghlu Huseynov (1896-1979) headed the Department of Pathological Anatomy from 1946 to 1979 – 33 years. The services of the Azerbaijan science coryphaeus Professor J.Y.Huseynov were invaluable in the formation of pathological anatomy as a fundamental science and a field of practical medicine in Azerbaijan, in general, in the development of medical science in Azerbaijan. After graduating from the Medical Faculty of the Azerbaijan State University named after V.I.Lenin in 1924, J.Y.Huseynov spent his 55-year life in the development of pathological anatomy in Azerbaijan and worked at the Department of Pathological Anatomy. He worked as Assistant Prosector, then Assistant Professor (1927), Associate Professor (1930), finally Professor (1936) and Head of the Department (1946). J.Y.Huseynov became the first teacher in Azerbaijan to teach pathological anatomy subject in native language. J.Y.Huseynov taught not only pathological anatomy, but also pathophysiology, microbiology and histology in Azerbaijani language. For the first time in these specified disciplines and forensic medicine, he made terms (more than 7 thousand) in the Azerbaijani language. He was engaged in medical terminology in Azerbaijani language when he led the Department of Pathomorphology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Azerbaijani branch of USSR Academy of Sciences in the 1940 years.

He was the first Azerbaijani author of the first textbook on pathological anatomy in Azerbaijani language. He also was a first Azerbaijani scientist who defended the first thesis of Doctor of Sciences in pathological anatomy. The first textbook "Brief Guide to Pathological Anatomy" on pathological anatomy in Azerbaijan was written in Turkish in 1933 by J.Y.Huseynov. The 395-page "General Pathological Anatomy" book was published in the Azerbaijani language under the authorship of J.Y.Huseynov in 1935 as the first official textbook in the field of pathological anatomy. Later, under the authorship of J.Y.Huseynov the textbooks "Special Pathological Anatomy" in 1948, "General Pathological Anatomy" in 1963, "General Pathological Anatomy" in 1975 and "Special Pathological Anatomy" in 1976, are compiled and published.

In 1936, J.Y.Huseynov defended his thesis of Doctor of Sciences on "Necrosis and gangrene in malaria, their pathogenesis". From 1946 to 1979, he was the Head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the Azerbaijan Medical Institute named after N.Narimanov, the Chief Pathologist of the Ministry of Health of the Azerbaijan SSR and the Chairman of the Scientific Society of Azerbaijani Pathologists.

In 1941-1945 during World War II the Clinical Institute (the former City Clinical Hospital №4 named after F.Efendiyev) where were located the department was deployed to the military hospital, the first pathological-anatomical museum created in the department was completely destroyed, many employees of the department mobilized for the war. In the 1940s the collective of the Department of Pathological Anatomy was expanding, because its reputation was growing every day under the influence of such influential people and scientists, such as Professor I.I.Shirokogorov and Professor J.Y.Huseynov. L.H.Mammadbayova, D.A.Abdullayeva, B.P.Ugryumov, A.N.Tahirov and others start their activity at the department. J.Y.Huseynov also worked as the director of prosectorium of maternity named after M.Azizbayov in 1928-1948 and the director of prosectorium of the City Clinical Hospital №1 named after Semashko in 1948-1979. In 1957 he was awarded the honorary title "Honored Scientist", in 1959 he was elected Corresponding Member of the Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences. Professor J.Y.Huseynov for many years studied the nervous system, using various methods of research, especially the electron microscopy. As a result of all this research works he published the monographs "About the pathomorphology of peripheral nervous system – receptors and synapses" in 1957 and "The structural changes of receptors and synapses in pathological condition (macro, micro and electron microscopic studies)" in 1965.

During his honest life and creative, scientific, practical and pedagogical activities, Professor J.Y.Huseynov, in addition to the above-mentioned and training of thousands of doctors, was the founder and leader of the great school consisting of famous figures of the pathological anatomy of Azerbaijan. Under his leadership, this school studied the peripheral nervous system at the level of synapses and receptors during the acute and chronic diseases; some of the most widespread infectious diseases in Azerbaijan at that time (malaria, anthrax, typhus, leishmaniosis, plague, rabies, tuberculosis, leprosy, etc.); morphology of endocrine diseases; gerontological problems; pathomorphological changes occurring in the blood and blood vessels during various methods of injection of Naftalan oil to the animal organism and so on using various research methods.

There are many well-known professors, associate professors, and highly qualified pathologists among the students of J.Y.Huseynov's school. The dedication of their knowledge and life to a very complex and difficult, honorable and responsible profession – to a pathological anatomy cannot be a dream and the will of all doctors. Working as a pathologist-anatomist is particularly difficult for women in our community. Nevertheless, in the collective of the Azerbaijani pathologists was the well-respected daughters of the nation – Professor Leyla Mammadbayova, Professor Pustakhanum Malikaslanova, Dr Dilara Abdullayeva, Dr Leyla Garayeva, Dr Shukufa Sultanova, Dr Sevil Hashimli, Dr Elmira Huseynova and others.

It is difficult to imagine the scientific and practical pathological anatomy of Azerbaijan without talented scientist Professor L.M.Mammadbayova (1922-2006). After graduating from the Azerbaijan Medical Institute in 1943 Leyla Mammadbayova was admitted to the PhD study at the Department of Pathological Anatomy with the recommendation of Academician I.I.Shirokogorov. In 1947 she was appointed to the position of Assistant Professor of the department. In 1954 she defended her PhD thesis on "Pathomorphology of metamalaria splenohepatomegaly" and became the first woman to earn a PhD degree in Pathological anatomy. She was elected to the position of Associate Professor of the Department. She continued her research on developmental mechanism of liver diseases and neuromorphological changes in liver veins during various pathological processes. In 1966, she defended his Doctoral thesis on the topic "Histopathology of the nervous apparatus of the liver veins" and became the first Azerbaijani female Doctor of Sciences in the field of pathological anatomy. L.H.Mammadbayova was elected to the position of Head of the Department of Pathomorphology at the Scientific-Research Clinical and Experimental Surgery Institute named after academician M.A.Topchubashov (current Scientific Center of Surgery named after academician M.A.Topchubashov) in 1963. Until 2006, she worked in this position. In the department headed by her, various pathological processes were studied, in particular structural changes in hemodynamic mechanisms at microcirculation levels in vascular and endocrine diseases in humans and animals in experiments. In 1990 she was awarded the honorary title "Honored Scientist". From 1994 to 2006, he was the Chief Pathologist of the Ministry of Health. She is the author of more than 200 scientific works and 1 monograph. Professor Leyla Mammadbayova's sincere desire for scientific searches, her commitment to pathological anatomy, and in general to medicine have always been an example for all.

One of the well-known pathologists of Azerbaijan is Professor Aligulu Rzagulu oghlu Atakishiyev (1925-1996), who worked in pathological anatomy and forensic medicine for many years. After graduating from AMI in 1949, A.R.Atakishiyev was in the specialization course in pathological anatomy of one year in Tbilisi (Georgia) and worked as a forensic medical examiner and pathologist at Lankaran, then Fuzuli regions in 1950-1953 years. In 1953 he admitted to the PhD study at the Department of Pathological Anatomy of AMI and after graduating in 1956, he worked at the "Forensic Medicine Expertise Bureau" of Ministry of Health. He also conducted practical classes at the Department of Pathological Anatomy. In 1956-1959 A.R.Atakishiyev first worked as a forensic medicine examiner – histologist in Azerbaijan and headed the forensic histology department, which was first established as part of the II department of the "Forensic Medicine Expertise Bureau", so he was the founder of the forensic histology in Azerbaijan. In 1960-1962 A.R.Atakishiyev worked in the Moscow Regional Bureau of Forensic Medicine Expertise. Then he defends his PhD dissertation on the topic “Pathomorphology of the interneuronal communications – synapses of peripheral nervous system in cancers of internal organs” under the supervision of Professor J.Y.Huseynov in 1962 at the Kuybishev city, Russia. After this, A.R.Atakishiyev returned to Baku and headed the Department of Morphology and Histology at the Central Scientific Research Laboratory of AMI until 1967. In 1967, he defended his doctoral dissertation on the topic "Morphological and histochemical characteristics of intracardial nervous structures during myocardial infarction". In the same year, Doctor of Medical Sciences A.R.Atakishiyev was appointed Director of the "Forensic Medicine Expertise Bureau" of the Ministry of Health of the Azerbaijan Republic and worked in this position until 1980. In 1970 he received the scientific title of professor. In 1967-1969, he also worked as a Professor at the Department of Forensic Medicine at AMI. In 1981-1996, Professor A.R.Atakishiyev worked at the Department of Pathocytomorphology of the Scientific Research Institute of Oncology (present National Oncology Center).

One of the well-known professors of the Department of Pathological Anatomy was Gudrat Ahmad oghlu Salimkhanov (1905-1981). After graduating from the Medical Faculty of Baku State University in 1929, G.A.Salimkhanov was appointed to the position of prosector of Department of Pathological Anatomy with the recommendation of Professor I.I.Shirokogorov. He worked at the department for all his life, he was promoted to the position of professor and head of the department. For many years he headed the Pathological-anatomical Service in Baku as the Chief Pathologist. G.A.Salimkhanov defended his doctoral dissertation on topic "Some properties of tuberculosis on materials based on Baku" in 1959. He later wrote a valuable monograph titled “Pathological-anatomical features of tuberculosis in the conditions of war” on the basis of his doctoral dissertation. Professor G.A.Salimkhanov worked as the Head of Department of Pathological Anatomy in 1979-1981.

Professor Ibrahim Mirza oghlu Isayev (1937-2004) is one of the worthy followers of the Professor J.Y.Huseynov's school. I.M.Isayev after graduating from AMI in 1961 was kept in PhD study on the specialty of pathological anatomy by the decision of the Scientific Council of the Institute. In 1964 he was appointed to the position of Assistant Professor in the department. He defended his PhD dissertation on the topic "Changes in the nervous apparatus of lungs during pneumosclerosis of various etiologies" under the supervision of Professor J.Y.Huseynov in 1967. After that, he was selected as a Senior Lecturer and Associate Professor of Department of Pathological Anatomy. In 1968-1987 he worked at the same time, firstly Vice-Dean, then 12 years Dean of the Faculty of General Medicine. In 1981 he was elected Head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy and until 2004 – end of his life worked in this position. Professor I.M.Isayev defended his doctoral dissertation on the topic "Pathological anatomy of peripheral nervous system during thermal injuries" in 1990.

For the first time, he has studied the morphological changes of the peripheral nervous system during the burn disease with the help of modern diagnostic methods and has reported the practical recommendations to prevent them. In 2000 he was awarded the honorary title "Honored Scientist". I.M.Isayev was the Chairman of Scientific Society of Azerbaijani Pathologist-anatomists in 1981-1994. Since 1988, he has Co-chair of the “Scientific Society of Azerbaijani Forensic Medicine Examiners and Pathologist-anatomists” in connection with the merger of two scientific societies. In 1992-1993, Professor I.M.Isayev worked at the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the Azerbaijan Medical University named after N.Narimanov, as well as worked as the General Director of the Forensic Medicine Expertise and Pathological Anatomy Unit of the Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan Republic. In addition to varied scientific-practical and pedagogical activities, Professor I.M.Isayev is known as a caring person and politician in the Azerbaijani community. He was elected a member of the Third Convocation of the Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Azerbaijan Republic.

In addition to the above-mentioned leading figures of pathological anatomy in Azerbaijan, there are well-known pathologists such as Professor M.Sh.Jahangirov, Professor P.S.Malikaslanova, Dr.Med.Sci. V.A.Alizade, Dr.Med.Sci. V.M.Abdullayev, Associate Professor Sh.M.Sultanova, PhD Y.A.Musayev, Dr. D.Abdullayeva and others.

Professor Mammad Shamil oghlu Jahangirov (1933) formerly worked at the Department of Normal human anatomy and at the Department of "Operative surgery and topographic anatomy" of AMI named after N.Narimanov in different positions, as well as Professor and Head of the Departments. Since 1978, he has worked as a Professor of Department of Pathological Anatomy and in 2005-2011, he worked as the Head of Department of Pathological Anatomy.

Current situation of the Department

From 2012 to Present, the Department of Pathological Anatomy of AMU is headed by Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Adalat Baybala oghlu Hasanov. He is also the General Director of the Forensic Medicine Expertise and Pathological Anatomy Unit of the Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan Republic. Professor A.B.Hasanov is a member of the Expert Council of Higher Attestation Commission under the President of Azerbaijan Republic, a member of the Scientific Council of Azerbaijan Medical University and a member of the Scientific Council of II Faculty of General Medicine.

After the appointment of Professor A.B.Hasanov the head of the department has been very serious works on improving the educational process of pathological anatomy at the university, improving the material and technical base of the department, as well as increasing the human resources. Necessary condition has been created for carrying out the teaching process at the department. It should be noted that from 1919 to 2014 the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the Azerbaijan Medical University was located in the City Clinical Hospital №4 named after F.Efendiyev as the main base. As the hospital ceased its activity, the Department of Pathological Anatomy, as well as other departments of the Azerbaijan Medical University located at the hospital, had already left the former hospital building and settled in a two-storeyed small teaching building located in the territory of the Baku Clinical Medical Center №1 from March 2014 to September 2016. As a result of direct instructions and close attention of the University administration, the renovated at the modern level and equipped with the new furniture accessories department was commissioned in the new building. The Scientific Research Educational-Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Azerbaijan Medical University was created in the department. On 15.09.2016, the Rector of Azerbaijan Medical University, Professor G.Ch.Geraybeyli took part in the opening ceremony of the department and laboratory, acquainted with the material-technical base of them and gave its instructions and recommendations for future activities.

Currently, 1 Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor; 7 PhD in Medicine, Associate Professors; 3 PhD in Medicine, Senior Lecturers; 6 Assistant Professors and 2 Senior Laboratory Assistants are employed in the department. The lectures and practical classes are taught to students of the faculties of General Medicine, Military Medicine, Dentistry, and Public Health on the subjects "Pathological anatomy-1" and "Pathological anatomy-2". Lessons are conducted in 3 languages: Azerbaijani, Russian and English. Residents on the specialty "Pathological Anatomy, Forensic Medicine Expertise" continue their postgraduate education in the department. At the same time, a large number of residents from other medical institutions are involved in the educational process of the department by rotation.

The scientific-research works on the theme "Clinical-morphological features of some of the most common human diseases in the modern period" is being continued in the department. At the same time, the pathological examinations of the human corpses (autopsies) are performed with participation of students, clinical-anatomical conferences are held, pathomorphological examinations of innumerable biopsy materials are carried out.

Staff members of the department take part in various local and international scientific events and represent our country properly. On October 13-16, 2016, for the first time in the history of forensic medicine and pathology of Azerbaijan Republic, I Turkey-Azerbaijan (TURAZ) Forensic Medicine and Pathology Congress was held at the Azerbaijan Medical University jointly organized by the Department of Pathological Anatomy of AMU, “Forensic Medicine Expertise and Pathological Anatomy” Scientific Practical and Education Unit of Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan Republic, Malatya Group of the Council of Forensic Medicine (ATK) of Republic of Turkey and Inonu University of Turkey. The congress brought together nearly 280 participants (120 from Turkey, 157 from Azerbaijan). There were 49 oral and 69 poster presentations during the congress.

The grant proposal "Maintenance of the molecular-genetic assessment of pathological changes during the experimental-clinical researches in Azerbaijan Medical University" under the supervision of the Head of the Department, Professor A.B.Hasanov was the winner of the Basic Grant Competition on complex scientific-research programs (EIF-KETPL-2015-1 (25) for 2015 announced by the Science Development Fund under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Other participants of the project are Senior Lecturer, PhD M.T.Orujov, Assistant Professor J.S.Musayev, Assistant Professor A.V.Ibishova and Senior Laboratory Assistant A.N.Isayev.

The Pathological Anatomy Museum with the numerous exhibits consisting of human organs that have changed during various diseases and pathological processes, was established in the two corridors of the department. The students get closely acquainted with these exhibits during the lesson process with teachers' participation or during their free time and strengthen their theoretically learned knowledge on the macroscopic materials directly.

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